Wang Z, Sparling M, Wang KC, Arbuckle TE, Fraser WD. Food Additives and Contaminants, Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment. 2019 Sep 25:1-10. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2019.1668968
Perchlorate is a low molecular weight highly soluble anion. It occurs naturally in the environment, primarily near potash deposits and in arid regions. The determination of perchlorate in human milk is of interest in vulnerable populations such as infants and pregnant women. In this study, a sensitive and selective isotope dilution ion chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID IC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of perchlorate in human milk samples collected from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.27 µg·kg−1 for human milk. A total of 439 human milk samples were analysed with measurable levels of perchlorate in most of the milk samples, and the mean value was 7.62 ± 32.7 µg·kg−1. This project provided important information related to perchlorate levels in human milk collected across Canada and the extent to which pregnant women and their infants may be exposed to perchlorate. A dietary exposure assessment was also conducted in infants based on the measured values in human milk. The mean perchlorate probable daily intakes (PDIs) for infants consuming human milk were 0.31 ± 0.07 μg/kg bw/day for infants under 1 year and 0.17 ± 0.10 μg/kg bw/day for infants between 1 and 3 years old. None of the estimates exceeded the FAO/WHO provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 10 μg/kg bw/day.