Becalski A, Zhao T, Granvogl M, Arbuckle TE. Food Additives and Contaminants 2018 Part A, 35:10, 1881-1889. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1506163.
Occurrence of 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol fatty acid esters (MCPDEs) in 199 human milk samples collected from Canadian women was examined in this study. MCPDEs were determined via indirect analytical approach by using acidic hydrolysis/transesterification and derivatization with cyclohexanone using a fluorinated sulfonic acid resin as a catalyst followed by GC-MS analysis. Analyses were done by a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) using 3-monochloropropanediol-d5 dipalmitate and 2-monochloropropanediol-d5 distearate as internal standards. In all samples 2-MCPD esters were not detected, at LOD = 1 ng/g for 2-MCPD equivalent. 3-MCPD esters were not detected, at LOD = 2 ng/g for 3-MCPD equivalent, in 193 samples. Six samples had the apparent concentration of 3-MCPD equivalent in the range of 2.0–5.1 ng/g, which was likely caused by accidental contamination during processing of samples. For selected samples, these findings were confirmed by direct analysis via LC-MS/MS analysis based on SIDA for 3-MCPD dipalmitate and 2-MCPD distearate. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to analyze human milk samples for 2-MCPD esters.